More than one generation can emerge in any given season because its seeds will germinate as long as the environment is moist and cool. Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is a winter or summer annual weed (depending on location). The surface of the leaves is often hairy. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/hairy-bittercress, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees, [sulfentrazone + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (4 SC) (Echelon), 2 - 4 pairs of leaflets arranged alternately. Don’t be fooled by the common name—its flavor is mild and peppery, not bitter. Notwithstanding its name, the flavor is mild and peppery, not bitter. It really picks up growth in early spring. While the leaves have a slight pubescence (you need a hand lens to see it) it is certainly not objectionable as a fresh green. Hairy bittercress is a winter annual weed. N.C. To reduce its numbers, prevent it from germinating by eliminating bare soil in your garden. It is nice to add to a salad, a sandwich, or soup. […] The leaves are the only parts we collect, they are quite small but usually grow in groups so a few leaf stems from each plant in an area will usually suffice for a meal. The leaves contain antioxidants, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and beta-carotene. The leaves are round or kidney-shaped. A dense, vigorous turf is the best way to reduce the encroachment of winter annual weeds. hairy bittercress. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Botanists call this mechanism ballochory, meaning ballistic seed dispersal. If it has not come into contact with herbicides, pesticides, or your dog’s bathroom habits, the leaves (not the fibrous flower stalks or seed pods) are also edible and quite nutritious. As long as the ground is not frozen, it is easy to pull or dig up, fibrous roots and all. The seed pod is called a silique and can contain up to 30 seeds. The initial true leaves are heart shaped, followed by leaves which contain 2 - 4 alternating leaflets. The plant is self-fertile. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Use it as soon after harvest as possible, as it wilts quickly. What made it so helpful? Collecting . Bittercress Cardamine hirsuta I love this little compact, rosette shaped annual with lobed leaves, small white flowers and upright seed pods that explode, flinging the seeds far and wide when ripe and you touch them, hence one of its names ‘shot weed or ‘flick weed’. Many have a prostrate growth habit and are not affected by mowing. Learning how it disperses seed will help you get ahead of this persistent weed. Hi-Yield Weed and Feed 15-0-10. Bittercress is quite good raw, but as with any seasonal herbs that grow in water, you should check whether any livestock have access to the stream where you’re collecting it. Control: Evaluate 2003 herbicide trials conducted at Oregon State University. Small hairs can be found at the base of the leaf as well as on the top of the leaf surface. Hairy bittercress going to seed. Prevent bare spots in your lawn by developing a dense, vigorous turf. Want to see which lists are available? Gallery 75 DF Specialty Herbicide. As long as it has not set seed, you can add hairy bittercress to your compost pile. Life cycle Primarily a winter annual. Leaf margins are deeply lobed. Why do we need this? Leaves at the base of … My biggest nemesis in this group is hairy bittercress. The hairy bittercress starts as a small, flat rosette of green leaves. Once the seed pods ripen, disturbing the pods will send the seeds flying as far as 16 feet. Hairy bittercress is very similar to Cardamine flexuosa. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. But you will find emerging in the coming cold months a class of weeds called winter annual weeds. The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. Hairy bittercress is a winter or summer annual depending on its location. Hairy Bittercress Identification Hairy bittercress seed germinates in late fall and, after emergence, forms a rosette as well as a fibrous root system. Cutting it short doesn't usually work because they can grow additional flower stems. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. It has simple, broad leaves. Cardamine hirsuta is a ANNUAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft). Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. KY: Haragan, P.D.. 1991. Be on the lookout for bittercress in the containers you bring home from the garden center. Hairy Bittercress is very shallow rooted and if you don't have a ton, hand pulling is a good option. Growth habit. ENH1250 Biology and Management of Hairy Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) in Ornamental Crop Production1Chris Marble, Shawn Steed, and Nathan S. Boyd2 1. Hairy bittercress can take hold in thin lawns and landscape beds in fall. It dies when the weather gets hot in late spring or early summer and after it … Stems can be 3-9 inches long, and the leaves are mostly on the lower portion of the stem in a basal rosette. Leaves are rounded to wedge-shaped and often have small hairs (i.e., Hairy bittercress is a winter annual weed that is in the mustard family and, while considered an undesirable plant that invades our lawns, is an edible plant. Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is a winter or summer annual weed (depending on location). Hairy bitter-cress is native to western Asia, and is a widespread invasive, introduced in North, Central and South America, East Asia , southern Africa and Australia. Hairy bittercress is a member of the mustard family and spreads by seeds that are dispersed as the pods burst open explosively after maturing. Among them are common chickweed, deadnettle, henbit, shepherd’s purse, and Persian speedwell. Leaf margins are deeply lobed. Thin fibrous flower stems emerge from the center of the rosette and grow from three to nine inches tall. Winter annual broadleaf weeds germinate in the fall or winter and grow during any warm weather, which may occur in the winter, but otherwise remain somewhat dormant during the winter. The seeds germinate from late summer through the fall, then overwinter and continue to grow in early spring. Scientific name: Cardamine Hirsuta. Photo by Lori Imboden, MSU Extension. Beginning in early fall and throughout the warmer days of winter, I wander through my garden planning for spring and looking for weeds to pull. Bittercress, notice the small leaves and upright flower stalks Hairy bittercress( Cardamine hirsuta ) and similar species such as pennsylvania bittercress ( Cardamine pensylvanica ) are small annual or biennial herbs that are prolific native plants in almost every state in the US. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. Photo credit: Susan Marquesen. Late winter and spring signal growth of all plants, but especially weeds. Mulch your garden beds. Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is a really unfortunate name for a wonderfully tasty edible weed.Bittercress is a mustard, so its bitterness is more spicy-hot than bitter, though it’s not nearly as hot as some other members of the Brassicaceae family. Flowers are small and white. Its ability to remains green throughout the winter means this plant plays a crucial role for the wild forager as it supplies essential vitamins and minerals through the Winter, It is best eaten though in January and February. Basal rosette of pinnate leaves; 1-3 pairs of leaflets with terminal, larger leaflet; tiny, 4-petaled white flowers in clusters at top of stems, followed by slender, upright seed capsules. The most important step in eradicating hairy bittercress in your garden is to never, ever let this weed go to seed. This is a small, low-growing weed. It is in flower from April to August, and the seeds ripen from May to September. Hairy bittercress Cardamine hirsuta. Annual weed seeds overwinter and then burst into growth towards the end of the season. Send Explanation, This Extension factsheet can also be viewed at: https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/hairy-bittercress. Hairy bittercress and other winter annual weed species, like common chickweed and purple deadnettle, are not typically present during the summer months. The plant is an annual weed, which is one of the earliest to sprout and form seeds. Don’t Forget to Pull the Weeds During Your Fall Garden Clean Up! Its sharpness balances the fattiness of patés and certain cuts of meat. Hairy Bittercress is a photoautotroph. Cardamine hirsuta, commonly called hairy bittercress, is an annual or biennial species of plant in the family Brassicaceae, and is edible as a bitter herb. Individuals can grow to 0.12 m. Actually thin turf or cutting your grass too short tends to predispose you to more weeds. TurfFiles provides turfgrass information to homeowners, students, extension personnel and professional turfgrass managers. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Foraging for hairy bittercress can be as simple as walking out into your backyard. Often considered a common garden "weed," Hairy Bittercress happens to be a delicious wild edible plant. Many perennial and biennial weeds have gone dormant. As for bitter, I prefer to classify the flavor as slightly… What is hairy bittercress? Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. It initially forms a basal rosette. Funding for this site is provided by the Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education, the Turfgrass Council of North Carolina and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. Summer annual weeds die with the first frost. Each flower has four white petals that form in the shape of a cross. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth. I usually notice this weed emerging in the last days of summer. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Control for hairy bittercress starts early in the season before flowers turn to seed and get a chance to spread. This document is ENH1250, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Hirsuta is derived from the latin hirsutus, meaning "somewhat hairy". It has only 4 stamens, C. flexuosa has 6 stamens, and the fruits overtop the flowers. Edit: Within the video I … It really picks up growth in early spring. Two to four pairs of leaflets are arranged alternately on each leaf stem. Hairy Bittercress – A Delightful Misnomer As far as I’m concerned, hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is neither hairy nor bitter. Hairy bittercress weed is no exception. Hairy bittercress typically flowers and produces seed during early spring. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. They quickly invade thin turf areas especially where there is good soil moisture. Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is a member of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). (Optional) Bittercress and aphids: As if bittercress weren't bad enough by itself, it also is a refuge for aphids. Growth from a rosette allows this species to tolerate frequent mowing at a diversity of heights of cut (Figure 1). Harvesting Hairy Bittercress. They resume growth and produce seed in the spring and die as temperatures increase in late spring and early summer. Professor and Extension Turfgrass Specialist. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Photo credit: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org. Other names are ‘lambs cress’, ‘spring cress’, and ‘hairy bittercress’. Based in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, we reach millions of Hairy bittercress is a prolific seed producer. Hairy bittercress - Cardamine hirsuta Edible plant - novice Other common names: Hoary Bittercress, Flick Weed, Lamb's Cress, Hot Weed, Spring Cress Scientific name meaning: The greek word Kardamon, which means "cress-like", is the origin of the genus name Cardamine. It germinates in the fall and will continue to grow during warm spells throughout the winter. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Stems can be 3-9 inches long, and the leaves are mostly on the lower portion of the stem in a basal rosette. This Extension factsheet can also be viewed at: N.C. Young hairy bittercress This weed blooms in Spring, when cool, moist conditions are present. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. I remember seeing it as a kid but haven't seen it growing in a long time. Leaves at the base of the plant are larger than the leaves at the top of the plant. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. In C. flexuosa the fruits do not overtop the younger flowers. Leaf margins are deeply lobed. Celsius WG Herbicide. Information available on this site is provided by faculty and staff in the Departments of Crop and Soil Sciences, Entomology and Plant Pathology, and Horticultural Science at NC State University. Control: View 2004 granular herbicide trials for controlling this and other common container weed species. Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) leafs out in a basal rosette, and like other members of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), its tender greens are edible. View our privacy policy. You will find hairy bittercress in your lawn where the turf is thin and in bare areas of your garden beds. It is common in moist areas around the world. Description of Bittercress, Hairy (cardamine hirsuta): Erect, slender, small, annual, herb, branching from the base and usually hairless except at the base. A member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), hairy bittercress can function as a winter annual, summer annual, or biennial. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). How to identify Hairy Bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta. The leaf size ranges from less than one-half inch to one inch, and the terminal leaf (the one at the end of the leaf stem) is the largest. It dies when the weather gets hot in late spring or early summer and after it has dispersed its seeds. 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